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Operation[ edit ] The HSD drive works by shunting electrical power between the two motor generators, running off the battery pack, to even out the load on the internal combustion engine.
Since a power boost from the electrical motors is available for periods of rapid acceleration, the ICE can be downsized to match only the average load on the car, rather than sized by peak power demands for rapid acceleration.
The smaller internal combustion engine can be designed to run more efficiently. Furthermore, during normal operation the engine can be operated at or near its ideal speed and torque level for power, economy, or emissions, with the battery pack absorbing or supplying power as appropriate to balance the demand placed by the driver.
During traffic stops the internal combustion engine can even be turned off for even more economy. The combination of efficient car design, regenerative braking, turning the engine off for traffic stops, significant electrical energy storage and efficient internal combustion engine design give the HSD powered car significant efficiency advantages—particularly in city driving.
Here are a few of them: The HSD can charge its battery without moving the car, by running the engine and extracting electrical power from MG1.
The power gets shunted into the battery, and no torque is supplied to the wheels. The onboard Synergy project management does this when required, for example when stopped in traffic. To start the engine, power is applied to MG1 to act as a starter. Because of the size of the motor generators, starting the engine requires relatively little power from MG1 and the conventional starter motor sound is not heard.
Engine start can occur while stopped or moving. There is no reverse gear as in a conventional gearbox: Early models did not supply enough torque for some situations: The problem has been fixed in recent models. If the battery is low, the system can simultaneously run the engine and draw power from MG1, although this will reduce available reverse torque at the wheels.
Most jurisdictions require automotive transmissions to have a neutral gear that decouples the engine and transmission. The HSD "neutral gear" is achieved by turning the electric motors off.
Under this condition, the planetary gear is stationary if the vehicle wheels are not turning ; if the vehicle wheels are turning, the ring gear will rotate, causing the sun gear to rotate as well the engine inertia will keep the carrier gear stationary unless the speed is highwhile MG1 is free to rotate while the batteries do not charge.
The owners manual  warns that Neutral gear will eventually drain the battery, resulting in "unnecessary" engine power to recharge batteries; a discharged battery will render the vehicle inoperable.
Lexus Hybrid Drive EV operation: At slow speeds and moderate torques the HSD can operate without running the internal combustion engine at all: This is popularly known as "Stealth Mode".
Provided that there is enough battery power, the car can be driven in this silent mode for some miles even without gasoline. When accelerating at low speeds in normal operation, the engine turns more rapidly than the wheels but does not develop sufficient torque.
The extra engine speed is fed to MG1 acting as a generator. The output of MG1 is fed to MG2, acting as a motor and adding torque at the driveshaft. When cruising at high speed, the engine turns more slowly than the wheels but develops more torque than needed.
MG2 then runs as a generator to remove the excess engine torque, producing power that is fed to MG1 acting as a motor to increase the wheel speed. In steady state, the engine provides all of the power to propel the car unless the engine is unable to supply it as during heavy acceleration, or driving up a steep incline at high speed.
In this case, the battery supplies the difference. Whenever the required propulsion power changes, the battery quickly balances the power budget, allowing the engine to change power relatively slowly.
By drawing power from MG2 and depositing it into the battery pack, the HSD can simulate the deceleration of normal engine braking while saving the power for future boost. The regenerative brakes in an HSD system absorb a significant amount of the normal braking load, so the conventional brakes on HSD vehicles are undersized compared to brakes on a conventional car of similar mass.Synergy Project Management Ltd.
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