The Chemistry of Clean: This procedure requires use of sodium hydroxide solution and should be performed in a chemistry lab, under adult supervision. Sodium hydroxide can burn the skin and the eyes.
In a beaker add 15 g lauryl alcohol to 10 mL conc sulfuric acid with great care 2. Slowly add the acidic solution of lauryl alcohol to the NaOH solution with constant stirring, until the pink solution just turns colorless.
Keep stirring for a few minutes. Filter the solution and dry the precipitated sodium lauryl sulfate on the filter paper. Draw out the structure of a generic oil or fat, indicate the functional groups present by naming and circling them 2.
Draw out the structure of a generic soap molecule. What solvents do you think the fat will be soluble in? What solvents do you think the soap will be soluble in? Outline how you will determine what solvents the fat, the soap and the detergent will be soluble in.
Next week each person will produce a different batch of soap using a different starting material or reaction conditions. Outline the starting materials and reactions conditions for each person in your group. Next week you will determine the solubility of the starting materials for soap, and produce as many samples of soap as there are people in your group.
Briefly discuss the results of your solubility tests on the fat or oil that you used to make the soap. What type of solvent was the fat soluble in? Discuss the molecular interactions that are responsible for the solubility of the fat.
Give the reaction conditions and results for each soap preparation. Discuss the similarities and any differences that you observed. Next week you will prepare samples of a detergent. Draw out the reaction scheme for the preparation of detergent below.
Give the structure of the detergent and indicate the functional groups 5. What do you think the purpose of the phenolphthalein is, in the preparation of the detergent? Compare the structures of soap and detergent. What are the similarities? What are the differences.
You may begin testing the soap and detergent next week. How will you test for lathering ability, solubility, cleansing ability?
You must devise other methods for testing. Note that the preparation of the detergent involves concentrated acids and bases. Make sure that you know how to handle them before you begin the synthesis.
During this time you will also begin the testing of the first batch of soap for solubility, lathering ability, and cleansing action.
Be sure to retain and label the waste water for further testing. What was the purpose of this weeks lab? Briefly describe the synthesis of the detergent.
What is the structural feature that makes both the soap and detergent effective as cleansing agents. Describe, using molecular pictures, how the soap and detergent act on a molecular level. Discuss the results of your solubility tests on the soap that each of you prepared.
What was the soap soluble in? Is there a difference in the solubility of the soap and that of the starting oil or fat. Why or why not? What were the results of your tests for lathering and cleansing action of the soap?
Which starting material gave the best results? Next week you will continue with your testing of the soap and detergent action. You will also analyze the waste waters from the preparations and determine how to make them safer for the environment. Outline the tests that you will run on the waste water to find out how potentially damaging it might be to the environment.
Planning sheet 4 Group Name This week you will test the solubility and effectiveness of both the soap and detergent, to determine which is more effective and appropriate.The synthesized soap was an alkaline (sodium) salt while the detergent was a sodium dodecylsulfate, which is another sodium salt.
When added to 1% CaCl2 and 1% MgCl2, the soap was insoluble and formed precipitates since it cannot interact with hard water which contains Ca 2+ and Mg2+ ions while the detergent was soluble due to its structure.
One of civilization's oldest chemical syntheses is re-created in this lab experiment. Students perform the process of saponification and produce a usable soap product.
A great biochemistry lab for physical science, chemistry, and other upper-level science classes. Synthesis of soap and detergent is the actual creation of soap and detergents itself.
Soap is any sodium or any potassium salt of fatty acids that is either derived from animal or vegetable fat. Various methods such as saponification, where as fats are broken to form impure salts of fatty acids and glycerol.
One of civilization's oldest chemical syntheses is re-created in this lab experiment. Students perform the process of saponification and produce a usable soap product. A great biochemistry lab for physical science, chemistry, and .
Overall, soap and detergent were prepared thus fuflling the main focus of the experiment.
Synthesis of Soap A mixture containing lard, sodium hydroxide, and ethanol is brought to a boil and continuously heated for 40 minutes.
The Chemistry of Clean: Make Your Own Soap to Study Soap Synthesis Summary. Background. Materials.
Procedure. Make It Your Own. Help. Learn More. Add Favorite. Email. Print. Show Others Like This The figure shows the chemical reaction that is the basis for soap synthesis.
Figure 1. Saponification of a fat molecule.