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This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In light of the changes anticipated from this policy initiative, the purpose of this paper is to review and summarize the literature on the benefits and drawbacks of EHR systems.
Much of the literature has focused on key EHR functionalities, including clinical decision support systems, computerized order entry systems, and health information exchange. Our paper describes the potential benefits of EHRs that include clinical outcomes eg, improved quality, reduced medical errorsorganizational outcomes eg, financial and operational benefitsand societal outcomes eg, improved ability to conduct research, improved population health, reduced costs.
Despite these benefits, studies in the literature highlight drawbacks associated with EHRs, which include the high upfront acquisition costs, ongoing maintenance costs, and disruptions to workflows that contribute to temporary losses in productivity that are the result of learning a new system.
EHR, health information technology, HITECH, computerized order entry, health information exchange Introduction Over the past decade, virtually every major industry invested heavily in computerization. Relative to a decade ago, today more Americans buy airline tickets and check in to flights online, purchase goods on the Web, and even earn degrees online in such disciplines as nursing, 1 law, 2 and business, 3 among others.
Yet, despite these advances in our society, the majority of patients are given handwritten medication prescriptions, and very few patients are able to email their physician 4 or even schedule an appointment to see a provider without speaking to a live receptionist.
How exactly do EHRs improve care? Answering these questions is the purpose of this paper. Stated explicitly, the purpose of this study is to review the literature on the impacts of EHR. Impacts include both benefits and drawbacks, and, as such, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages that have been identified by researchers and other experts.
Overall, we expect that any reader interested in understanding the current state of the knowledge base with regard to EHR benefits will find this paper useful. Some functionalities of a CDS system include providing the latest information about a drug, cross-referencing a patient allergy to a medication, and alerts for drug interactions and other potential patient issues that are flagged by the computer.
With the continuous growth of medical knowledge, each of these functionalities provides a means for care to be delivered in a much safer and more efficient manner. As more and more CDS systems are used, one can expect certain medical errors to be averted and that, overall, the patient will receive more efficient and safe care.
Computerization of this process eliminates potentially dangerous medical errors caused by poor penmanship of physicians. It also makes the ordering process more efficient because nursing and pharmacy staffs do not need to seek clarification or to solicit missing information from illegible or incomplete orders.
Once health data are available electronically to providers, EHRs facilitate the sharing of patient information through HIE. HIE is the process of sharing patient-level electronic health information between different organizations 14 and can create many efficiencies in the delivery of health care.
Patients typically have data stored in a variety of locations where they receive care. Over a lifetime, much data accumulates at a variety of different places, all of which are stored in silos.
HIE facilitates the exchange of this information via EHRs, which can result in much more cost-effective and higher-quality care.
In the following section, we describe the literature that has examined the effect of EHRs on various clinical and organizational outcomes.
Many of these studies have been discussed in previously published literature reviews, 16 — 20 so we further summarize them here. Clinical outcomes include improvements in the quality of care, a reduction in medical errors, and other improvements in patient-level measures that describe the appropriateness of care.
Organizational outcomes, on the other hand, have included such items as financial and operational performance, as well as satisfaction among patients and clinicians who use EHRs. Lastly, societal outcomes include being better able to conduct research and achieving improved population health.
EHRs and clinical outcomes Many clinical outcomes that have been a focus of EHR studies relate to quality of care and patient safety.
In the following paragraphs we summarize some of the studies that examine how EHRs or various related components impact these three quality dimensions. More research is needed on the other three components: EHRs, especially those with CDS tools, have been empirically linked to an increased adherence to evidence-based clinical guidelines and effective care.
Despite the best intention of providers, various factors may result in patient encounters that do not adhere to best practice guidelines. Some reasons for this nonadherence include i clinicians not knowing the guidelines, ii clinicians not realizing that a guideline applies to a given patient, and iii lack of time during the patient visit.The Use of Patient Records (EHR) for Research Mary Devereaux, Ph.D.
Director, Biomedical Ethics Seminars Assistant Director, Research Ethics Program & San Diego Research Ethics Consortium.
Abstract The growing availability of electronic medical records, and large databases of health information such as EPIC, afford Paper Records. A Handful Of Good Electronic Medical Records Research Paper Topics. You may be required to complete a research paper for any class that you take, even something like electronic medical records .
May 11, · The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of that was signed into law as part of the “stimulus package” represents the largest US initiative to date that is designed to encourage widespread use of electronic health records (EHRs).
Electronic Medical Records Research Paper. Communication Paper - Electronic Medical Records The mode of communication that I will be addressing is Electronic Medical srmvision.com are several different benefits with this type of communication.
According to "Center for Studying Health System Change" (), “Physicians can focus on the . A Case Study for Blockchain in Healthcare: “MedRec” prototype for electronic health records and medical research data White Paper Ariel Ekblaw*, Asaph †Azaria*, John D.
Halamka, MD, Andrew Lippman* *MIT Media Lab, †Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center August Note: The abstract and first three sections of this white paper are . The use of health information technology (HIT) in general, and electronic health records (EHRs) in particular, is increasingly viewed as necessary to enable hospitals, physicians groups, and other providers to manage and document the quality of care provided to patients.