Just before the Civil War, Congress passed legislation allowing businesses to form corporations without a charter from the U. After the Civil War, these corporations came to dominate much of American business, and, in the process, to define American life.
Additional Information Abstract Nonstationary Markov analyses are used to investigate impacts of environmental regulatory costs associated with compliance on changes in market structure in pulp and paper industries.
Results show environmental regulation expenditures have statistically significant effects on the probabilities of capacity moving to a larger company-size category, so industry structure is affected by environmental regulation. However, counter to expectations, results further show consolidation occurs with higher probability when environmental costs are falling rather than when they are rising.
Policy analyses that presume immediate policy responses to cost changes or that industry structure is unchanged may yield time-inconsistent policy conclusions. If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'.
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High-Technology Industries and Market Structure. the second effect refers to the fact that each consumer is now a market to be contested. In one model they find that when consumer tastes are not dramatically different, the intensified competition effect dominates the surplus extraction effect.
Research might cast light on the extent to which various forms of a liability cap would affect market structure, the degree to which reduced activities by some firms would be taken up by others, and how such changes might affect the stability of the financial system.
Defenders of social regulation point to the benefits arising from policies that keep dangerous products from the marketplace, reduce workplace injuries and deaths, contribute to clean air and water, and reduce employment discrimination.
When they can get away with it, governments always want to inflate the currency.
How Interest Rates Affect The U.S. Market.) Bailouts. regulation and tax can take away from many more. regulation, all of which have effects on innovation (see Box 1).
Economic regulation is intended to ensure the efficiency of markets, partly through promoting adequate competition among actors in the market-place.
Social regulation is intended to promote the internalisation of all relevant costs by these actors. Social. Regulation can take many forms: accreditation or market regulation.
Endogenous preferences - regulation intended to affect the development of certain preferences on an aggregate level [vague] Professional conduct - the regulation of members of professional bodies.