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Slovenian Evaluation Society, Slovenian Evaluation Society, Working paper vol. In Continental Europe, NPM has often been criticised for mimicking private management without due recognition to the complexity of public domain in its multiple scopes and multiple scales of operation. Paper studies this problem on the case of impact evaluation of three main types of policy initiatives: Recognising this, impact evaluation of public sector initiatives should be considerably modified.
Paper discusses this need from methodological as well as from the normative point of view and concludes that public sector can be consistently evaluated and also managed from the aspect of its multi-scale and multi-scope complexity. Doctrine is rooted in the conviction that private sector management is superior to public one.
As Hayek wrote in The Fatal Conceit,1 neglect for cost-efficiency in a world of limited resources leads to neglect for others whose aspirations must remain unmet only because somebody else is allowed to waste scarce resources.
As a management philosophy NPM is applied with the aim to modernise the public sector, to debureaucratise government and to reduce red tape considerably. NPM principles have affected every aspect of policy cycle and so they also affected the approach to evaluation of public sector performance in its all three main areas, in impact evaluation of programs, legislation and budget.
These three comprise the main routes for governmental intervention into the society. For instance, programming is the main policy vehicle for shaping our common future. On the other side, poor 1 Hayek F. Slovenian Evaluation Society, Working paper no.
As recognised by Slovenian government, for instance, adopted regulations are often in contradiction with each other or fail to regulate important issues for quality of public life.
But it turned out that in practice public and private sectors are essentially different. NPM has been criticised for mimicking private management without due recognition to the specificities of public domain and for being inward-looking and as such ignoring the wider implications.
This became prominently displayed when NPM doctrine was transmitted beyond its original institutional Anglo-Saxon framework where it instigated a series of unexpected and unwanted side effects. As ideas, concepts, values, practices are transmitted from one cultural or political context to another they undergo a process of transformation.
Thus, how a given management concept that is transferred between different management traditions is actually received and turned into new political practices — requires study. Purpose of this paper is to investigate reasons and consequences of disappointing contribution of NPM to better public management in Continental Europe in the area of policy impact evaluation.
The narrow scope and scale of its rationality imposes accordingly simplified evaluative framework. In fact, there are incommensurable viewpoints with regard to social reality in scale and in scope, so they provide us with views that are not reducible to a common denominator Funtowicz, Ravetz, The problem is that in evaluation of LS-MS policies it is necessary not only to assess diverse and multiple but fragmented policy impacts micro level but also to translate them into summary conclusions for strategic decisions macro level that inform decision-makers operating at the meso level.
Resulting challenge is how to provide for sufficient synthesis when society is based on incommensurability of social values and human knowledge Kuhn, ; Feyerabend, ? Weak comparability of values as a foundation for ecological economics.
Elsevier, Ecological Economics 26 The Public Nature of Private Violence. Toward a New Vision: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The University of Chicago Press, http: It sometimes even misleads when it falsely informs policy-makers in particular at middle and at strategic level.
Recent studies9 have revealed that possible reason for poor policy relevance of impact evaluation could be methodological. Evaluators, quite like policy managers sometimes inadequately distinguish between complexity of social issues in scale and in scope.
This frames the working hypothesis of paper: Paper will inquire different approaches to policy impact evaluation from the aspect of how they take into account social incommensurability.
Results will be used to inquire possibilities for more comprehensive policy impact evaluation system.(-)-(3R,5R)-3,5-Dimethylcyclohexanone - minty, resembling iospulegone in character. Ref: Charles S. Sell, Scent through the Looking Glass, Chemistry & Biodiversity. Fluidization is a process in which solids are caused to behave like a fluid by blowing gas or liquid upward through the solid-filled reactor.
Fluidization is widely used in commercial operations; the applications can be roughly divided into two categories, i.e. 78 Los Alamos National Laboratory Associate Directorate for Theory, Simulation, and Computation (ADTSC) LA-UR Detecting Distributional Differences in Simulated Particle Data Sets.
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The museum’s plastics collection began in the s with the acquisition of specimens of plastic raw materials and finished products.
The collection was driven largely by Arthur de Ramon Penfold (), a former industrial chemist, who worked as curator and later director of the museum from until A canvas implementation of the Meijster algorithm to compute Euclidean, Manhattan, and Chessboard distances - parmanoir/Meijster-distance.