An analysis of women referees in the national collegiate athletic association

Female basketball players face disproportionate racial bias:

An analysis of women referees in the national collegiate athletic association

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Female basketball players face disproportionate racial bias: The Howard Journal of Communications study reveals that, during the ten seasons from toreferees called a disproportionate number of personal fouls against female basketball players from historically black colleges and universities HBCUs compared to female basketball players from predominantly white institutions PWIs.

The findings add to mounting evidence that racial discrimination remains an issue in sport today. To shed light on whether referee bias exists in women's college basketball, study author Dr.

An analysis of women referees in the national collegiate athletic association

All teams that played every season in Division 1 from to were included in the analysis: Dix tabulated the total number of personal fouls per game PFPG that referees called against each individual team, and calculated the ten-year average for every team. The five most penalized teams over these ten seasons were HBCUs.

Female basketball players face disproportionate racial bias: New study

On average, teams from HBCUs were called for an additional 1. Comparatively, referees called significantly fewer personal fouls against female basketball players from PWIs than those from HBCUs, indicating a recurring pattern of referee bias.

This significant new research suggests that elements of racism are still embedded in various parts of the American cultural fabric, and underlines how racial inequality can permeate amateur- as well as professional-level, sport.

Creating awareness and fostering a dialogue on this iteration of referee bias is an important step towards facilitating meaningful change in the officiating of women's college basketball.Furthermore, through a longitudinal analysis of athletic administration representation at the collegiate level, Acosta and Carpenter1 determined that most collegiate athletic departments had an AT but fewer than one-third of these schools had a female head AT.

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ESPN News Wire In his article about collegiate sports programs, Thomas Rosandich refers to a "performance pyramid", which shows the general progression of athletic organizations in the United States.
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This study was commissioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) as an independent analysis of the empirical effects of intercollegiate athletics in Division II. As schools offer more athletic programs and as more students participate in sports, the demand for umpires, referees, and other sports officials may increase.

However, funding for athletic programs often is the first thing to be cut when budgets become srmvision.com-level education: High school diploma or equivalent. The Epidemiology of Hip/Groin Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s and Women’s Ice Hockey Through Academic Years Show all authors.

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