Background[ edit ] Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empireenjoying, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. However, the emperor was an absentee German -speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state; as a result, Italy gradually developed into a system of city-states. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naplesinitially established by the Normans.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi Evaluate the relative importance of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi for the Italian Unification between and In order to achieve the unification the Italians had to go through a long struggle starting from and ending in Thanks to the leading of Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi, the Mediterranean peninsula was able to defeat its foreign enemies, especially the Austrian Empire, and create a united nation under the King of Piedmont, Viktor Emmanuel II.
Although Mazzini was the starter of nationalism movements and aroused the spirits of many Italians, Cavour and Garibaldi were the two leaders who were able, both in their own way, to create a consolidated country. We will write a custom essay sample on The Italian Unification: In his first years of revolutionary movements in the s he was exiled from Italy, and moved to Switzerland to create a new movement, the Young Italy.
This movement was different from the precedent Carbonari, that were less prepared and more violent, and it was made up by the middle class and as well as the working class and the peasants.
Later in his life, Mazzini worked cooperating with Garibaldi, and together with him they made a lot of progress in the process of achieving their goal. Cavour was the mind and About italian unification essay brain of the Italian Unification, who created the political strategies to defeat Austria.
He was a noble man but had liberals ideas, and wanted to unite the country under the Kingdom of Piedmont, working with Viktor Emmanuel II. With his domestic polices he created new banks, that made loans to middle class men to open businesses, that gave jobs to the working classes.
The banks also made loans to businesses that wanted to create railroads so that Italy was modernized like the rest of Europe. He then facilitated the trading to gain industrial goods from England and strengthen the army of Piedmont, in order to prepare it for war.
Cavour used once again his diplomatic skills when he decided to support France and England in the Crimean War inwhere his troops won many battles. He then secretly met with Napoleon III in Plombieres, and signed a compact in which the French Emperor promised to support Italy in a war against Austria in exchange of the territories of Nice and Savoy.
When the war broke out in though, Napoleon III, unexpectedly resigned and withdrew his troops, signing a peace contract in Villafranca with the Austrians. With his foreign and domestic policies, Cavour had created the opportunities and the circumstances for Italy to unite.
If Cavour was the mind and the brain of the Italian Unification, Garibaldi was the heart of the movement.
He was an idealist who believed, like Mazzini, that Italy had to be unified under a republic and without foreign aid. He became the leader of the unification when, with his troops, the thousand red shirts, he conquered Sicily in sending away the Bourbon family and the king of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand II.
He conquered Naples, and marched up north, until he got to Rome, where the troops of the Kingdom of Piedmont waited for him.
Even though he was a republican, he decided to hand out the territories he conquered to the king Viktor Emmanuel II, who was now the king of Italy. Venetia was still part of the Austrian Empire and Rome was still part of the papal state. Garibaldi then tried to conquer the Papal State but was defeated by the French troops and was exiled from Italy.
He was able to escaped but failed again sending an army from Tuscany to Rome again. The Italian Kingdom was finally united when Venetia was handed to the Italian kingdom after the Austro-Prussian war, and Rome was invaded by the Italian troops in and the Pope was given sovereignty on the Vatican City.
Garibaldi was able to send away the Bourbon family and to conquer the south of Italy, and became one of the greatest military leaders of all times in Italy.
Even though Mazzini was the starter of the Italian movement the Young Italy and rose the nationalism spirits of the Italians to initiate the process of the unification, the mind and the heart of the unification, Cavour and Garibaldi, were essential to the creation of a united nation.
They both were able to use their qualities, one of being a diplomatic and smart men, while the other being a brave and romantic military leader, and together were able to defeat the Austrian and hand to the Piedmont king, Viktor Emmanuel II, the Italian Peninsula.Introduction is a year to remember in Italian history: indeed, on 20 September , the Italian army marched into Rome and captured the city, completing the unification process begun by Garibaldi and his Thousand in Sicily ten years earlier, in Italian Unification Count Camillo Benso di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi can be seen as a contrast between two inspirational and great leaders during the time of the Italian Unification.
Cavour was a nobleman, always calm and well educated while Garibaldi was a .
He was the saint of Italian unification, by constantly champion the cause of Italian unification he kept alive a nationalist thinking and "endow the revolutionary movement with a spiritual quality." He was the teacher of Italian unification. His role was essential if not crucial.
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To what extent did foreign intervention impact the Italian unification movement? Italy, The unification movement of Italy has just been completed, the movement that could not have been successful without the efforts of Italy itself.
This essay will compare and contrast the unification of Germany and the unification of Italy. War is war. It is a natural force, it can unite some, and divide others, and the unification of both Germany and Italy are to be understood with the same frame of thought for this essay.
Cavour & Italian unification In at the close of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars the statesmen representing the great powers, in their efforts to restore stable governance to Europe after twenty-six years of turmoil, came to accept (under the persuasion of Talleyrand - the Foreign Minister of the recently restored French monarchy) that "legitimate sovereigns" should be.